タリウム

81
Tl
13
周期
6
ブロック
p
陽子
電子
中性子
81
81
123
一般特性
原子番号
81
原子量
204.3833
質量数
204
カテゴリ
卑金属
銀色
放射性
いいえ
From Greek thallos, meanin a green shoot or twig
結晶構造
六方最密構造
歴史
Thallium was discovered spectroscopically by Sir William Crookes in 1861, in London.

In 1862, Claude-Auguste Lamy used a spectrometer to determine the composition of a selenium-containing substance which was deposited during the production of sulfuric acid from pyrite.

He noticed the new green line in the spectra and concluded that a new element was present.
電子殻
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 3
電子配置
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p1
Tl
Agatha Christie made use of thallium's toxicity in her novel The Pale Horse
物理特性
固体
密度
11.85 g/㎝3
融点
577.15 K | 304 °C | 579.2 °F
沸点
1746.15 K | 1473 °C | 2683.4 °F
融解熱
4.2 kJ/mol
蒸発熱
165 kJ/mol
熱容量
0.129 J/g·K
地殻中における存在比
0.000053%
宇宙空間における存在比
5×10-8%
Pure
画像の出典: Images-of-elements
Pure thallium under argon
CAS登録番号
7440-28-0
PubChem CID Number
5359464
原子特性
原子半径
170 pm
共有結合半径
145 pm
電気陰性度
1.62 (ポーリングの値)
イオン化エネルギー
6.1082 eV
モル体積
17.2 ㎝3/mol
熱伝導率
0.461 W/㎝·K
酸化数
1, 3
用途
Thallium selenide has been used in a bolometer for infrared detection.

Thallium is also used in gamma radiation detection equipment.

Thallium oxide has been used to produce glasses with a high index of refraction, and is used in the manufacture of photo cells.

Some of the electrodes in dissolved oxygen analyzers contain thallium.
Thallium and its compounds are highly toxic
同位体
安定同位体
203Tl, 205Tl
不安定同位体
176Tl, 177Tl, 178Tl, 179Tl, 180Tl, 181Tl, 182Tl, 183Tl, 184Tl, 185Tl, 186Tl, 187Tl, 188Tl, 189Tl, 190Tl, 191Tl, 192Tl, 193Tl, 194Tl, 195Tl, 196Tl, 197Tl, 198Tl, 199Tl, 200Tl, 201Tl, 202Tl, 204Tl, 206Tl, 207Tl, 208Tl, 209Tl, 210Tl, 211Tl, 212Tl