ガリウム

31
Ga
13
周期
4
ブロック
p
陽子
電子
中性子
31
31
39
一般特性
原子番号
31
原子量
69.723
質量数
70
カテゴリ
卑金属
銀色
放射性
いいえ
From the Latin word Gallia, France; also from Latin, gallus, a translation of Lecoq, a cock
結晶構造
底心 斜方晶系
歴史
In 1871, existence of gallium was first predicted by Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev and called the element eka-aluminum.

Gallium was discovered spectroscopically by French chemist Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1875 by its characteristic spectrum in an examination of a sphalerite sample.

Later that year, Lecoq obtained the free metal by electrolysis of its hydroxide in potassium hydroxide solution.
電子殻
2, 8, 18, 3
電子配置
[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1
Ga
Gallium has a strong tendency to supercool below its melting point / freezing point
物理特性
固体
密度
5.907 g/㎝3
融点
302.91 K | 29.76 °C | 85.57 °F
沸点
2477.15 K | 2204 °C | 3999.2 °F
融解熱
5.59 kJ/mol
蒸発熱
256 kJ/mol
熱容量
0.371 J/g·K
地殻中における存在比
0.0019%
宇宙空間における存在比
1×10-6%
Crystals
画像の出典: Wikimedia Commons (Foobar)
Crystals of gallium
CAS登録番号
7440-55-3
PubChem CID Number
5360835
原子特性
原子半径
135 pm
共有結合半径
122 pm
電気陰性度
1.81 (ポーリングの値)
イオン化エネルギー
5.9993 eV
モル体積
11.8 ㎝3/mol
熱伝導率
0.406 W/㎝·K
酸化数
1, 2, 3
用途
Gallium wets glass or porcelain and forms a brilliant mirror when it is painted on glass.

It is widely used in doping semiconductors and producing solid-state devices such as transistors.

Low melting gallium alloys are used in some medical thermometers as non-toxic substitutes for mercury.

Gallium arsenide is capable of converting electricity directly into coherent light.
Gallium is considered to be non-toxic
同位体
安定同位体
69Ga, 71Ga
不安定同位体
56Ga, 57Ga, 58Ga, 59Ga, 60Ga, 61Ga, 62Ga, 63Ga, 64Ga, 65Ga, 66Ga, 67Ga, 68Ga, 70Ga, 72Ga, 73Ga, 74Ga, 75Ga, 76Ga, 77Ga, 78Ga, 79Ga, 80Ga, 81Ga, 82Ga, 83Ga, 84Ga, 85Ga, 86Ga