ジルコニウム

40
Zr
4
周期
5
ブロック
d
陽子
電子
中性子
40
40
51
一般特性
原子番号
40
原子量
91.224
質量数
91
カテゴリ
遷移元素
銀色
放射性
いいえ
From the Persian zargun, gold like
結晶構造
六方最密構造
歴史
Zirconium was first recognized as an element by Martin Heinrich Klaproth in 1789, in Berlin, in a sample of zircon from Sri Lanka.

Zirconium metal was first obtained in an impure form in 1824 by Jöns Jakob Berzelius by heating a mixture of potassium and potassium zirconium fluoride in an iron tube.

Dutch scientists Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer discovered a method for producing high purity zirconium in 1925.
電子殻
2, 8, 18, 10, 2
電子配置
[Kr] 4d2 5s2
Zr
The most common oxide is zirconium dioxide, also referred to as zirconia
物理特性
固体
密度
6.506 g/㎝3
融点
2128.15 K | 1855 °C | 3371 °F
沸点
4682.15 K | 4409 °C | 7968.2 °F
融解熱
21 kJ/mol
蒸発熱
580 kJ/mol
熱容量
0.278 J/g·K
地殻中における存在比
0.013%
宇宙空間における存在比
5×10-6%
Two
画像の出典: Wikimedia Commons (Alchemist-hp)
Two samples of crystal bar showing different surface textures as well as a highly pure zirconium cube for comparison
CAS登録番号
7440-67-7
PubChem CID Number
23995
原子特性
原子半径
160 pm
共有結合半径
175 pm
電気陰性度
1.33 (ポーリングの値)
イオン化エネルギー
6.6339 eV
モル体積
14.0 ㎝3/mol
熱伝導率
0.227 W/㎝·K
酸化数
1, 2, 3, 4
用途
Zirconium is mainly used as a refractory and opacifier, although it is used in small amounts as an alloying agent for its strong resistance to corrosion.

Zirconium is used as to make surgical instruments and is used in steel alloys as a hardening agent.

Zirconium is also used to make superconductive magnets.
Zirconium is considered to be non-toxic
同位体
安定同位体
90Zr, 91Zr, 92Zr, 94Zr
不安定同位体
78Zr, 79Zr, 80Zr, 81Zr, 82Zr, 83Zr, 84Zr, 85Zr, 86Zr, 87Zr, 88Zr, 89Zr, 93Zr, 95Zr, 96Zr, 97Zr, 98Zr, 99Zr, 100Zr, 101Zr, 102Zr, 103Zr, 104Zr, 105Zr, 106Zr, 107Zr, 108Zr, 109Zr, 110Zr