塩素

17
Cl
17
周期
3
ブロック
p
陽子
電子
中性子
17
17
18
一般特性
原子番号
17
原子量
35.453
質量数
35
カテゴリ
ハロゲン
黄色
放射性
いいえ
From the Greek word chloro, greenish yellow
結晶構造
底心 斜方晶系
歴史
Around 1630, chlorine was recognized as a gas by the Belgian chemist and physician Jan Baptist van Helmont.

Elemental chlorine was first prepared and studied in 1774 by Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele.

By 1810, the scientific consensus was that chlorine was actually a compound that contained oxygen.

In 1811, Sir Humphry Davy concluded the new gas was in fact a new element.
電子殻
2, 8, 7
電子配置
[Ne] 3s2 3p5
Cl
Tree frogs have a chlorine compound in their skin that is a very powerful pain killer
物理特性
気体
密度
0.003214 g/㎝3
融点
171.65 K | -101.5 °C | -150.7 °F
沸点
239.11 K | -34.04 °C | -29.27 °F
融解熱
3.2 kJ/mol
蒸発熱
10.2 kJ/mol
熱容量
0.479 J/g·K
地殻中における存在比
0.017%
宇宙空間における存在比
0.0001%
Pure
画像の出典: Images-of-elements
Pure liquid chlorine under a pressure of 8 bars
CAS登録番号
7782-50-5
PubChem CID Number
24526
原子特性
原子半径
79 pm
共有結合半径
102 pm
電気陰性度
3.16 (ポーリングの値)
イオン化エネルギー
12.9676 eV
モル体積
22.7 ㎝3/mol
熱伝導率
0.000089 W/㎝·K
酸化数
-1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
用途
Chlorine is used for producing safe drinking water.

It is also extensively used in the production of paper products, dyestuffs, textiles, petroleum products, medicines, antiseptics, insecticides, food, solvents, paints, plastics, and many other consumer products.

Chlorinated compounds are used mostly for sanitation, pulp bleaching, disinfectants, and textile processing.
Elemental chlorine at high concentrations is extremely dangerous and poisonous
同位体
安定同位体
35Cl, 37Cl
不安定同位体
28Cl, 29Cl, 30Cl, 31Cl, 32Cl, 33Cl, 34Cl, 36Cl, 38Cl, 39Cl, 40Cl, 41Cl, 42Cl, 43Cl, 44Cl, 45Cl, 46Cl, 47Cl, 48Cl, 49Cl, 50Cl, 51Cl